Prediabetes: Causes, Main Symptoms and Risk Factors
In the US, one in four Americans are pre-diabetic, and up to two in the casualized population. In Belgium, an estimated 5 or 6% the percentage of people with diabetes in the population. And nearly 10% of the people in Prediabetes, a little known yet about who deserves special attention on the occasion of World Diabetes Day, celebrated on Thursday 14 November. “Prediabetes paves the evolution to diabetes. After five to ten years of Prediabetes, there is a chance two have developed true diabetes with the consequences that entail. another reason to screen for Prediabetes is that the prediabetic person may develop complications macroangiopathic type, which means the great vessel lesions (carotid, heart, arteries lower limbs), which means the risk of a heart attack.
Prediabetes Symptoms: frequent, and always with thirst
Do not panic! If you have consumed foods particularly savory, if your office or apartment overheated or if it’s the middle of summer, it is perfectly justified to have much more thirsty. However, without external causes, it can be a sign of prediabetes.
Decoding: When sugar levels are too high in the blood, sugar molecules appear in the urine, which is not normally the case. To eliminate sugar, the body needs to dissolve as much as possible, which requires a lot of water it punctures in the body, namely in the muscles and tissues. This process asks for a considerable time, during which dehydrates. Especially in parallel urinating much more than usual, increased thirst. A landmark “See if thirst occurs more than once every two hours and if the night wakes you at least twice with the need to drink a glass of water.
How can we define Prediabetes?
This concept is not very old, since the first time we talked about Prediabetes, it was in 1979 in the United States. A group identified the entity he called “carbohydrate intolerance.” The concept has evolved to amended again in the 2000s before coming to the accepted definition in 2013 that Prediabetes are two separate entities. Namely, on the one hand, the so-called abnormal fasting glucose (a blood sugar level is between 100 and 125 mg per dl) and, on the other hand, glucose intolerance, which based on the glucose tolerance test. This is to make the patient ingest 75 grams of sugar and then measure blood sugar levels at different times, the important time to define the carbohydrate intolerance is the one hundred and the twentieth minute after ingestion.
If at that time, the value is between 140 and 199, there is a carbohydrate intolerance that is the other facet of Prediabetes. Recently appeared a third way of defining Prediabetes, namely a glycated hemoglobin value between 5.7 and 6.4%. In addition, we have a true diagnosis of diabetes. Prediabetes is whether the anomaly fasting or carbohydrate intolerance hundred a twentieth minute or a combination of both.
So what are the main risk factors of Prediabetes?
There is a certain age, say beyond 45 years, but the main factor is overweight. It must also take into account family history of type 2 diabetes Prediabetes should also be considered in a woman who has gestational diabetes (gestational or pregnancy). Plus, in the presence of other conditions often associated with diabetes such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular history, or too much inactivity. To detect it, at first, a questionnaire can be used, which specifically addresses factors risk. This assesses the risk of Prediabetes to ten years and thus target the population at which it must go further.
lt is recommended to be screened for Prediabetes if:
- The person is over 40 years.
- The person is overweight with a BMI (body mass index) greater than 25.
Besides, if added to these first elements, we have one of the following risk factors, you are advised to get tested:
- The total absence of the sport
- Family history of diabetes, first degree.
- Belonging to an ethnic group at high risk
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
- High triglycerides or low HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol)
- Abnormal blood sugar tests.
- A history of heart disease.
- Signs of disease insulin resistance.
- Insufficient sleep (less than 6 hours per day) or too large (over 9 hours) which can increase insulin resistance.
Can we treat Prediabetes?
Yes, and as it is reversible this sense. In addition, the treatment of Prediabetes is cheap. The most effective way is a dietary habit. That is to lose weight by a somewhat controlled by diet and exercise. To be effective, considering one hundred and fifty minutes per week of moderate physical activity is sufficient. This amounts to half an hour of walking or cycling, five days a week. In this way, it is entirely correct Prediabetes. And if lifestyle changes are not enough, studies have shown that some drugs are very effective, such as metformin, which improves insulin sensitivity and helps curb the transition from Prediabetes to diabetes.
More about Prediabetes
Researchers have found genes related to insulin resistance. Excess fat – especially fat – and inactivity also seem to be essential factors in the development of Prediabetes. What is certain is that the people who have Prediabetes do not assimilate sugar (glucose) properly. This then causes an accumulation of sugar in the blood, which no longer fulfills its role of supplying the muscle cells and other body tissues.
The majority of glucose that is found in the organism comes from the diet. During digestion, sugar enters the blood, and with the help of insulin (a hormone produced by a gland of the pancreas), it is then absorbed by the cells of the body to provide energy. Insulin and has a key role because it reduces the amount of sugar in the blood.
Prediabetes Symptoms: More Follows
In Prediabetes, this process begins to show signs of weakness, and there is an increase in blood sugar. This occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, or the cells become resistant to the action of insulin. The reason for this phenomenon can also be explained by the combination of these two causes. By identifying the signs of prediabetes before diabetes occurs, it is possible to guard against the development of a complete type 2 diabetes. This also reduces the risk of complications associated with this disease, such as heart disease.
The study by the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the US recently found that many people who have made changes in their diet and increased their sport were able to prevent diabetes. And many could regain normal blood sugar levels. The DPP found that just 30 minutes of moderate daily physical activity associated with a weight loss of 7% produces a reduction of almost 60% risk of diabetes.