Pregnancy Symptoms: Diagnosis, Complication, and Medication
Pregnancy Symptoms is the term used when a woman has a fetus that grows in her, mostly in the womb. Pregnancy in humans lasts about 40 weeks, or just over nine months, from the last period of menstruation to the birth of the child.
Pregnancy tests are sold in pharmacies. The result is reliable, only a few days after a delayed period. A doctor may also perform a pregnancy test.
The pregnancy test measures the chorionic gonadotrophin hormone, also called HCG or beta-HCG. This hormone is secreted by the cells of the future placenta as soon as the embryo is installed in the uterine wall. It is detectable about eight days after fertilization and throughout pregnancy. Its amount is maximum in the body between the 7th and the 12th week of pregnancy, then fall. The pregnancy test is in the form of a stick or card. The device contains antibodies that react in the presence of the pregnancy hormone, indicating a blue line or a small cross depending on the “pregnant” or “not pregnant” state.
The first signs of pregnancy are:
- The absence of one or more cycles of menstruation.
- Breasts harder, bulkier or more painful to the touch.
- More bulging, darker nipples. The tubers of Montgomery (small glands present on the areola) more numerous or larger.
- Nausea or vomiting (usually after a few weeks of pregnancy)
As the pregnancy progresses, other symptoms may appear.
Pregnancy Symptoms: Internally
- An excess of saliva, mainly when it is the first pregnancy.
- A metallic taste in the mouth.
- Heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease.
- Sensitivity to gums.
- Frequent urges to urinate. The enlarged uterus presses on the bladder.
- Brownish bleeding. At the moment the egg attaches to the uterine wall (nidation), small bleeding may occur. If
- bleeding is very red and accompanied by clots, contact your doctor
- Vaginal, white, painless, and odorless discharge that may be abundant.Constipation. Sometimes present from the beginning of pregnancy, constipation is usually more troublesome in the second half of pregnancy, when the uterus compresses the organs.
- Abdominal pain reminiscent of menstrual cramps.
- Vaginitis (fungal infection).
- Nasal congestion.
- Numbness or hand pain, especially during the third trimester and during the night.
- Weight loss in early pregnancy.
- Back pain, especially during the last months of pregnancy.
In the external appearance:
- A surge of acne.
- Water retention or edema (swelling), ankles, legs, or face.
- The appearance of varicose veins (damaged veins in which the blood circulates badly). Generally, occur around the 7th month and manifest a sensation of heaviness or itching.
- The appearance of the pregnancy mask (chloasma), dark spots on the face, mainly the forehead, nose, cheekbones, and chin, due to exposure to the sun.
- The appearance of a brown line from the navel to the pubis, as the belly grows.
Pregnancy Symptoms: At the psychic level
- Fatigue, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy.
- Cravings or aversion to certain foods. A loss of appetite, or other days, an appetite difficult to control.
- Sensitivity to certain odors.
- Changing moods, irritability, hypersensitivity.
- Dizziness. Increased blood volume and more active heart activity can cause dizziness. These can also be hypoglycemic or caused by a drop in blood pressure.
- Sleep problems.
- Stress, caused by the coming of the future baby.
Pregnancy Symptoms: The possible complications
Possible complications of pregnancy symptoms are:
- Miscarriage (natural interruption of pregnancy before 20 weeks of pregnancy). It occurs in 15 to 20% of pregnant women.
- Gestational diabetes is glucose intolerance that manifests during pregnancy, most often during the 2nd or 3rd trimester.
- Iron deficiency anemia (due to iron deficiency) is common in pregnant women, particularly those with multiple and close pregnancies.
- Pre-eclampsia or pregnancy hypertension results from high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine. It may develop gradually or appear abruptly after about 20 weeks of pregnancy. The only way to cure it is to give birth to the child.
Preterm labor occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy. The causes are multiple and very often unknown.
In general, consult your doctor if you have:
- Loss of fluid or blood from the vagina.
- Sudden or extreme swelling of your face or your fingers.
- Severe or persistent headache.
- Nausea and vomiting persist.
- Blurred or blurred vision.
- Pain or cramps in the abdomen.
- Fever or chills.
- A change in the baby’s movements.
- A burning sensation when urinating.
- A disease or infection that persists.
- If you are a victim of abuse or ill-treatment.
Medications during pregnancy
During pregnancy, prescription and over-the-counter medicines, herbal products, topical creams, inhalers, vitamins, and supplements can cross the placenta and reach the baby’s bloodstream. It is, therefore, advisable to consult a doctor before taking any type of medication. If you are already taking medication for a chronic illness (asthma, diabetes …) or any particular condition, your doctor will tell you what to do during your pregnancy. In general, it is preferable to favor alternative methods for common ailments.
First: In the case of colds
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or paracetamol (Doliprane, Efferalgan) is safe. Blow nose regularly uses a physiological serum to clean the nose.
- Cold medications often have vasoconstrictor effects (which decrease the diameter of blood vessels) and are not recommended for use in pregnant women.
- Nasal sprays containing azelastine (antihistamines) are discouraged, those containing ephedrine or phenylephrine should be used for a short time, without exceeding the dosages.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®) and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirine®), should be avoided during the last four months of pregnancy.
Second: In the case of coughing
In the case of need (a dry cough disabling, tiring …) and with the agreement of a doctor, antitussives with light opiates (containing codeine or dextromethorphan) can be taken without exceeding the prescribed doses. Be careful, however, not to take a few days before delivery due to a risk of soothing effect for the child.
Third: In the case of constipation
- Prefer a diet high in fiber, drink a lot, move regularly.
- Pharmaceuticals based on bran or mucilage ( a vegetable substance which swells on moisturizing), such as Metamucil® or Prodiem®, as well as paraffin oil-based lubricant laxatives, can be used for a few days.
- Avoid mannitol (Manicol®) and pentaerythritol (Auxytrans®, Hydrafuca®). Attention to laxative herbal teas, some may promote uterine contractions.
Forth: In case of nausea and vomiting
Diclectin® (doxylamine-pyridoxine hydrochloride succinate) is a safe prescription drug in pregnancy because it has been shown to cause no harm to babies. It contains a certain amount of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of vitamin B6 to reduce nausea and vomiting of pregnant women in early pregnancy.